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  • Category Archives Albedo modification?
  • WA State Accused of “Cloud Rustling”

    YEP,  IN 1977  WA STATE WAS  ACCUSED OF “CLOUD RUSTLING”

    Rainmaking and Cloud Rustling – The New York Times

    www.nytimes.com/1977/03/09/archives/rainmaking-and-cloud-rustling.html

    Mar 9, 1977 – THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF IDAHO HAS ACCUSED THE NEIGHBORING STATE OF WASHINGTON OF “CLOUD RUSTLING,” AND ANNOUNCED PLANS TO FILE SUIT IN FEDERAL …

    THE HISTORY OF “CLOUD RUSTLING,” WEATHER MODIFICATION, AKA CLOUD SEEDING FROM 1944 THROUGH 2017 IS VERY, VERY INTERESTING

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    HMMM?  HOW INTERESTING…

    A CLOUD SEEDING LAWSUIT WAS FILED AGAINST WA STATE  IN 1956

    Washington State 1956

    Auvil Orchard Company, Inc. v. Weather Modification, Inc.,

    Nr. 19268 (Superior Court, Chelan County, Wash. 1956).

    This is an UNREPORTED case that has been mentioned briefly in several law review articles.4Auvil was able to get a temporary injunction prohibiting cloud seeding for hail suppression.

    HOWEVER, AUVIL WAS UNABLE TO OBTAIN A PERMANENT INJUNCTION, BECAUSE HE WAS UNABLE TO PROVE THAT THE CLOUD SEEDING HAD CAUSED A FLOOD.

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    AND, In 1977 WA State passed a law on CLOUD SEEDING

    Chapter 43.37 RCW: WEATHER MODIFICATION – Access Washington

    app.leg.wa.gov/rcw/default.aspx?cite=43.37

    LIABILITY OF STATE DENIEDLegal rights of private persons not affected. 43.37.200. Penalty. 43.37. … PROGRAM OF EMERGENCY CLOUD SEEDING AUTHORIZED. 43.37.220.

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    INDEED….

    THE HISTORY OF CLOUD SEEDING  MAKES AN INTERESTING CASE STUDY

    in the interaction between, Department of Defense, DoD, USDOD, or DOD scientists and society: not only about the obligations and ethics of scientists, but also about Owning the Weather in 2025. A Research Paper … Presented on 17 June 1996,

    AND, HOW COURTS HAVE AVOIDED DECIDING CASES INVOLVING TECHNICAL ISSUES ABOUT WEATHER MODIFICATION.

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    UNBELIEVABLE?

    Weather as a Force Multiplier: Owning the Weather in 2025 – US Gov

    For those who would like to read the rest of Weather as a Force Multiplier: Owning the Weather in 2025, or are still having doubts about weather modification, Earth Changes Central has made a copy of the original US Air Force PDF file available for reading, which can be located here:
    http://earthchangescentral.com/research/Project2025/vol3ch15.pdf

    Aug 5, 1996 – Owning the Weather in 2025. was A Research Paper … Presented on 17 June 1996, this report was produced in the Department of Defense, DoD, USDOD, or DOD) school.

    WHO?

    The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating …

     WHAT?

    THE INFLUENCE OF THE WEATHER ON MILITARY OPERATIONS HAS LONG BEEN RECOGNIZED. During World War II, Eisenhower said, [i]n Europe bad weather is the worst enemy of the air [operations]. Some soldier once said, “The weather is always neutral.” Nothing could be more untrue. Bad weather is obviously the enemy of the side that seeks to launch projects requiring good weather, or of the side possessing great assets, such as strong air forces, which depend upon good weather for effective operations. If really bad weather should endure permanently, the Nazi would need nothing else to defend the Normandy coast!

    WHEN?

    D-Day Weather Map Is Most Important in History
    The forecast for northwest France on June 6, 1944 stands as history`s most important weather forecast. Conditions at Omaha Beach and the other landing zones within 50 miles of Normandy had to be just right so as to allow troops to parachute to their landing zones, as well as maneuver their way onshore via amphibious vehicles. With so many military assets being deployed — more than 5,000 ships, 13,000 aircraft and 160,000 Allied troops — THE WEATHER FORECAST, AT A TIME WHEN MODERN METEOROLOGY WAS STILL IN ITS INFANCY, WAS CRUCIAL TO THE SUCCESS OF THE MISSION.
    (mashable.com)
    http://hitlernews.cloudworth.com/weather-wwII-mud-war.php

    WHERE?

    Massive World War II bombing raids altered English weather
    Allied bombing raids during WWII turned the English sky white with contrails, providing a case study for scientists studying how the weather is affected by these long, feathery lines of condensation that form behind aircraft. Contrails form when the hot, moist plume of engine exhaust mixes with cold air. Liquid droplets form and then freeze, forming a straight, white line. Contrails, which can last days, have complex effects on the Earth`s surface temperature: They can reflect sunlight, causing cooling, or they can trap long-wave radiation, and preventing it from escaping to space.
    (livescience.com)
    http://hitlernews.cloudworth.com/weather-wwII-mud-war.php

    WHY?

     Weather as a Force Multiplier: Owning the Weather in … – UK Skywatch

    www.uk-skywatch.co.uk/Weather%20as%20a%20Force%20Multiplier.%20Owning%…

    by CTJ House – ‎1996 – ‎Cited by 26 – ‎Related articles

    Aug 5, 1996 – Owning the Weather in 2025. A Research Paper … Presented on 17 June 1996, this report was produced in the Department of Defense, DoD, USDOD, or DOD) school.

    The Department of Defense is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned …

    Earth Changes Central has made a copy of the original US Air Force PDF file available for reading, which can be located here:
    http://earthchangescentral.com/research/Project2025/vol3ch15.pdf

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    READ THE 1996 DOCUMENT ABOVE

     ————————————————

    READ THE TWO DOCUMENTS BELOW…

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    Full text of “Weather modification: programs, problems, policy, and …

    https://archive.org/stream/weatificat00unit/weatificat00unit_djvu.txt

    193 Legislative and congressional activities 194 Federal legislation on weather ….. 93th Cong., 1st sess., Oct. 26, 1977, Washington, U.S. Government Printing ….. Operation of cloud-seeding equipment near the border of one State may also …

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    Weather Modification Law in the USA – Dr. Ronald B. Standler

    www.rbs2.com/weather.pdf

    Oct 22, 2006 – Washington state 1956 . … South Dakota 1977 . …. The best-known kind of weather modification is cloud seeding, with the goal of producing …

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    WHO OWNS THIS WEATHER MAY 2, 2017

    Towns Flooded Across Arkansas, Missouri as Rivers Rise; 20 Dead in …

    https://weather.com/…/severe-weather-tornadoes-flooding-storms-texas-missouri-arka…

    May 2 2017 01:00 PM EDT … Story Highlights. At least 20 people have … Flooding triggered by deadly storms over the weekend prompted ….

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    Deadly storms and flooding in US Midwest, South | News | DW.COM …

    www.dw.com/en/deadly-storms-and-flooding-in-us-midwest-south/a-38658400

    13 hours ago – TOP STORIES … Deadly storms and flooding in US Midwest, South … Date 02.05.2017; Related Subjects Weather; Keywords US, Midwest, …

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    Weather Manipulation – Fact or Fantasy? – Earth Changes Central

    earthchangescentral.com/eccarticles/WeatherManipulation_Fact_or_Fantasy01.html

    Sep 11, 2005 – IN THE UNITED STATES, WEATHER-MODIFICATION will likely become a part of … has made a copy of the original US Air Force PDF file available for …

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    WHETHER WEATHER MANIPULATION IS FACT OR FANTASY?

    WHETHER CLOUD SEEDING CAUSES FLOODING?

    WHETHER CHEMTRAILS ARE A CONSPIRACY OR FACT?

     YOU DECIDE…

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    CHANGING THE NAME DOES NOT CHANGE THE GAME. period

    Behind My Back | Albedo modification?

    www.behindmyback.org/category/albedo-modification/

    www.sciencemag.org/…/fight-global-warming-senate-calls-study-… —————-. Science Apr 19, 2016 – Controversial “albedo modification” should be explored …

    Behind My Back | $5.4 Billion for DOE’S “albedo modification”?

    www.behindmyback.org/2016/04/29/5-4-billion-for-does-albedo-modification/

    Apr 29, 2016 – By Adrian Cho Apr. 19, 2016 , 4:00 PM www.sciencemag.org/. … Albedo modificationis not a solution to global warming, it is only a way to …

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    Climate intervention (also called geoengineering)

    Climate Intervention – National Academies

    dels.nas.edu/…/cli
    National Research Council (U.S.) Commission on Ge…
    David Keith, an atmospheric physicist at Harvard University, says,
    “Ignorance is not a good basis for making decisions?
    so learning more about this is extremely valuable ($5.4 billion?)
     even if we find out that it will never work?
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    The bottom line
    REALLY?

    To be continued……


  • Jan 9, 2017 Weather 6 Degrees of Separation?

    NOAA’S SITE SAYS THAT ALMOST 60% OF THE U.S. IS SNOW-COVERED NOW

    SNOW IS ON THE GROUND IN 49 OF 50 STATES.

    ACCORDING TO A NATIONAL SNOW COVER MAP PRODUCED BY THE NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION (NOAA).

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    Weather Six Degrees of Separation?

    1. Global Warming?
    2. Climate Change?
    3. Conflict of Whether?
    4. Melting
    5. Flooding – Drought
    6. Predicting

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    Snow is on the ground in 49 of 50 states – USA Today

    Doyle Rice , USA TODAY Published 8:28 a.m. ET JAN. 9, 2017 | Updated 15 minutes ago

    www.usatoday.com/story/weather/2017/01/09/snow-cover-map/96337102/

    1 hour ago – Only Florida is snow free, according to a national snow cover map … Floridians, start your gloating: SNOW IS ON THE GROUND IN 49 OF 50 STATES. Only Florida is snow free, ACCORDING TO A NATIONAL SNOW COVER MAP PRODUCED BY THE NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION (NOAA).

    The weekend winter storm dumped snow and ice in a stripe from the Deep South to the Mid-Atlantic to the Northeast. Some of the highest snow totals included 19.5 inches in East Bridgewater, Mass., and a foot in Mount Airy, N.C.

    And yes, there is snow on the peaks of the volcanoes in Hawaii, as seen in the photo below of Mauna Kea, taken Sunday afternoon.

    Overall, NOAA’S SITE SAYS THAT ALMOST 60% OF THE U.S. IS SNOW-COVERED NOW. (Though some of the white on the map in the South is most likely ice, or sleet. BUT IT’S COLD, FROZEN AND WHITE, NONETHELESS.)

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    California winter storm live updates – LA Times

    www.latimes.com/…/california/la-me-live-winter-weather-california20170106-htmlst…

    4 hours ago – A string of winter storms is expected to bring up to 20 feet of fresh snow to Mammoth Mountain. The winter weather is also bringing some more much-needed rain to other parts of California. … Ten homes in the Carmel Valley were partly flooded late Sunday after a nearby river swelled …

    Jan. 9, 2017, 3:16 a.m.

    A string of winter storms is expected to bring up to 20 feet of fresh snow to Mammoth Mountain.

    The winter weather is also bringing some more much-needed rain to other parts of California.

    Officials say that if these wet conditions extend into the spring, 2017 could prove a turning point for the epic, years-long drought in the state.

    See photos>>

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    INTERESTING… conflict of interest

    CONSIDERING THE FIFTEEN YEAR DROUGHT IN CALIF, WHILE FARMERS PRAYED “GOD HELP US”

    JAN 4, 2017 MOTHER NATURE STARTED HELPING AND YOU CAN ALREADY SEE.

    26 TO 48 INCHES OF SNOW THAT MOTHER NATURE HAS BROUGHT US!

    A MAMMOTH MEGA-STORM IS  EXPECT TO DROP UP TO 20 FEET SNOW IN THE SIERRA MOUNTAINS.

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    HMMM… SNOW COULD AFFECT NORMAL SKI RESORT OPERATION?

    Mammoth mega-storm expected to drop up to 20 feet; ‘God help us’

    It’s snowing in the Sierra. It started snowing Jan. 4, and you can already see what Mother Nature has wrought.

    Chris ErskineContact Reporter

    Another blizzard swept Mammoth Mountain on Wednesday, the precursor to a string of storms expected to bring up to 20 feet of fresh snow in the next 10 days, the resort says.

    Since Tuesday, 26 to 48 inches of fresh snow had fallen, with the deepest totals at the summit. Plows were working furiously to keep lots and streets clear.

    Normal resort operations could be affected as personnel struggle to deal with the snow.

    The cause of the snow? One of those “atmospheric rivers” that forecasters refer to in particularly generous storms like this. In the next week and a half, the Sierra resort is expecting three of those wet cycles.

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    JAN. 9, 2017  NOAA’S SITE SAYS THAT ALMOST 60% OF THE U.S. IS SNOW-COVERED NOW SNOW IS ON THE GROUND IN 49 OF 50 STATES. (IT’S COLD, FROZEN AND WHITE)

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    WHAT A DIFFERENCE A YEAR MAKES

    DEC 14, 2016

    NOAA Issues ‘Jaw-Dropping’ Assessment on ‘Unprecedented’ Arctic …

    Common Dreams (press release)-DEC 14, 2016

    NOAA Issues ‘JAW-DROPPING’ ASSESSMENT ON ‘UNPRECEDENTED’ ARCTIC WARMING … Card from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) may well provide the ignition. … RECORD LOW SNOW COVER: Spring snow cover set a record low in the … (map) Temperatures across the Arctic from October …

    NOAA reveals the top of the world is heating up TWICE as fast as the …
    In-Depth-Daily Mail-Dec 13, 2016

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    JAN. 9, 2017

    Life-threatening flooding problems to mount as storm train aims for …

    CALIFORNIA…..

    www.accuweather.com/…/floodingproblems-to-mount-as-stormtrainaims-for-califo

    1 hour ago – LIFE-THREATENING FLOODING will continue to wallop northern and central California into the middle of the week. Several moisture-laden storms will …

    Life-threatening flooding problems to mount as storm train aims for California

    By Renee Duff, AccuWeather meteorologist

    January 09, 2017, 10:00:39 AM EST

    Excessive rain to trigger flooding, mudslides

    Cumulative rainfall into midweek could surpass a foot across the northern California coast ranges and west-facing slopes of the Sierra Nevada. Two to 8 inches of rain are expected across the Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys.

     “THE SIEGE OF STORMS HAS THE POTENTIAL TO WIPE OUT OR GREATLY ERASE THE LONG-TERM DROUGHT CONDITIONS IN THE REGION,” ACCUWEATHER SENIOR METEOROLOGIST ALEX SOSNOWSKI SAID.

    The rain will have a hard time absorbing into the soil with each passing storm. AS A RESULT, INCIDENTS OF URBAN FLOODING, RIVER FLOODING, MUDSLIDES AND ROCK SLIDES WILL ONLY INCREASE INTO MIDWEEK.

    Significant flooding, mudslides and rock slides were reported shortly after the first wave of rain moved ashore on Sunday.

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    JUN 28, 2013

    Behind My Back | Flooding is a Dam Shame

    www.behindmyback.org/2013/06/28/flooding-is-a-damshame/

    JUN 28, 2013DROUGHT IS A DAM  SHAME CHINA WAS SO DAM SMART THAT THEY BUILT THE BIGGEST DAM IN THE WORLD. HE WHO CONTROLS …

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    Klamath River, CA (96050) Forecast | Weather Underground

    https://www.wunderground.com/us/ca/klamathriver

    Klamath River, CA. 7:15 AM PST on January 08, 2017 (GMT …. Jan. 08, 2017, Rise, Set … Landslides and debris flows are possible during this flood event. People… … produce very steep seas of 9 to 13 feet at around 10 seconds this afternoon …

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    APRIL 14, 2016 EMAIL FROM SENATOR MARIA CANTWELL

     She’s Just saying… DROUGHT IS A  SHAME

    An unprecedented drought last year and 15 YEARS OF DROUGHT ACROSS THE AMERICAN WEST have demonstrated the need to rethink U.S. water management for the 21st Century. Since 1980, droughts have cost the United States more than $200 billion. The drought last year caused widespread and serious impacts for communities, agriculture, industry and the environment. As drought is predicted to continue in the coming years and as communities throughout the United States face significant water-security challenges, it is a crucial time to evaluate and develop new strategies at the national level.

    Just saying…Senator Cantwell does not mention the removal of Dams or Flooding, period

    MAR 24, 2016 – FLOOD IS THE LARGEST CONTRIBUTOR TO CATASTROPHIC LOSS WORLDWIDE.

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    JANUARY 9, 2017

    Hundreds Evacuated As Worst Flooding In a Decade Hits California …

    https://weather.com/news/weather/news/atmospheric-river-california-impacts

    2 hours ago – Hundreds have been evacuated as flooding hits California, Nevada. … Ian Schwartz (@SchwartzTV) JANUARY 9, 2017 … Sunday on flooded roads as heavy rains from the massive winter storm moved into Northern California.

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    Behind My Back | A DAM shame drought and flooding

    www.behindmyback.org/category/a-damshamedrought-and-flooding/

    Apr 17, 2016 – Drought and Flooding in U.S.A are a DAM shame. APRIL 14, 2016 … www.behindmyback.org/2015/09/04/wotus-water-runs-down-hill/. Sep 4 …

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    MAY 25, 2015

    Behind My Back | Past and Present Drought in WA State

    www.behindmyback.org/2015/05/25/history-current-drought-in-wa-state/

    MAY 25, 2015 – My website, behindmyback.org, is dedicated to investigating, researching, … This entry was posted in A DAM shame drought and flooding, …

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    JUN 19, 2015

    The UN Is Planning to Migrate Americans From California, Followed …

    www.thecommonsenseshow.com/…/the-un-is-planning-to-migrate-americans-from-ca…

    by L Wilson – ‎Related articles

    JUN 19, 2015Petersen, Rear Adm Sigmund. “NOAA Moves Toward The 21st Century.” The Military Engineer 20, no. 571 (June-July 1995). AF2025 v3c15-7 …

    The United States Drought Monitor map is showing that 78% of the state(CALIFORNIA) is currently experiencing an “exceptional drought” stage. This represents a 22% increase from just a year ago.

    Droughts can prove devastating to a community as widespread crop and pasture losses and shortages of water in reservoirs, streams and wells accompany drought conditions.

    Dave Hodges – The Common Sense Show – Freeing America – One …

    snippet

    Amazingly, Lynne Wilson serves on THE CLIMATE CHANGE DELEGATION IN THE UNITED NATIONS. This fact makes Wilson’s statement that

    CIVILIZATIONS IN THE PAST HAVE HAD TO MIGRATE OUT OF AREAS OF DROUGHT. WE MAY HAVE TO MIGRATE PEOPLE OUT OF CALIFORNIA”,

    to be very suspect with regard to moving Americans out of California

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    MAR 24, 2016 – FLOOD IS THE LARGEST CONTRIBUTOR TO CATASTROPHIC LOSS WORLDWIDE.

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    Map of U.S. Dams Removed Since 1916 | American Rivers

    https://www.americanrivers.org/threats-solutions/…damaged-rivers/damremoval-map/

    A full list of dams removed from 1999 to 2015 can be found here.

    AMERICAN RIVERS IS THE ONLY ORGANIZATION MAINTAINING A RECORD OF DAM REMOVALS IN THE UNITED STATES

    AMERICAN RIVERS CONTRIBUTED FINANCIAL AND TECHNICAL SUPPORT IN MANY OF THE REMOVALS. Working in a variety of functions with partner organizations throughout the country.

    Communities in 18 states, working in partnership with non-profit organizations and state and federal agencies, there were 51 Dams Removed to Restore Rivers in 2013, American Rivers announced today.


  • $5.4 Billion for DOE’S “albedo modification”?

    To fight global warming, Senate calls for study of making Earth reflect …

    By Adrian Cho 
    www.sciencemag.org/…/fight-global-warming-senate-calls-study-…
    —————-
    Science Apr 19, 2016 – Controversial “albedo modification” should be explored, scientists say. … Albedo modification “is not a solution to global warming, it is only a way to …. of the U.S. Government documents (patents, climate/weather modification …To fight global warming, Senate calls for study of making Earth reflect more light
    ————————————————–
    By definition
    Albedo is the technical term for the proportion of sunlight
    that Earth’s surface and atmosphere reflect back to space
     Albedo modification  AKA…. “geoengineering”
    ————————————
    Unedited full text

    Budgetmakers in the U.S. Senate want the Department of Energy (DOE) to study the possibility of making Earth reflect more sunlight into space to fight global warming. Earth’s reflectivity is known as its albedo, and the request to study “albedo modification” comes in the details of a proposed spending bill passed by the Senate appropriations committee to fund DOE, the Army Corps of Engineers, and related agencies for fiscal year 2017, which begins 1 October. The bill does not specify how much money should be spent on the research.

    Critics argue that albedo modification and other “geoengineering” schemes are risky and would discourage nations from trying to reduce their emissions of carbon dioxide, the heat-trapping gas that comes from the burning of fossil fuels and that is causing global warming by absorbing increasing amounts of energy from sunlight. Still, climate researchers say they should find out what its potential of albedo modification might be.

    “The recommendation is great,” says Joyce Penner, an atmospheric scientist at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Albedo modification “is not a solution to global warming, it is only a way to avoid, perhaps, a tipping point in the climate.” David Keith, an atmospheric physicist at Harvard University, says, “Ignorance is not a good basis for making decisions, so learning more about this is extremely valuable even if we find out that it will never work.” Keith adds, however, that the few existing studies suggest albedo modification could help ameliorate some effects of global warming.

    The call for further research comes in a bill that would provide $5.4 billion for DOE’s Office of Science next year. It also builds on the recommendations of a February 2015 report from the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) entitled Climate Intervention: Reflecting Sunlight to Cool Earth. That report warned explicitly that albedo modification shouldn’t be deployed now because the risks and benefits were far too uncertain. Still, the committee urged further research to find out what those risks and benefits might be.

    The Senate appropriations committee wants DOE to do that research. “As other nations have launched research programs on albedo modification, the Committee recommends the Department review the findings of the NAS report … and leverage existing computational and modeling capabilities to explore potential impacts of albedo modification,” says a report that accompanies the Senate budget bill. The direction is included in a section outlining priorities for the Office of Science program in biological and environmental research, which currently has an annual budget of $609 million.

    Albedo modification would work by lacing the atmosphere with tiny particles or aerosols that would reflect sunlight and mimic natural processes. For example, in 1991 the volcano Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines spewed 20 million tons of sulfur dioxide into the stratosphere, which spans altitudes from 10 to 50 kilometers. There, the sulfur dioxide produced aerosols that reflected enough sunlight to reduce global temperature by an estimated 0.3°C for 3 years. Albedo modification might also work by using aerosols to seed cloud formation in a lower atmospheric layer called the troposphere.

    However, the NAS report also noted that the potential effects of albedo modification remain poorly understood and quantified. Scientists lack even the observational tools to measure the effects of albedo modification, the report states. To make up for those shortcomings, the report called for a research program, including smaller scale field trials, whose goal “should be to improve understanding of the range of climate and other environmental effects of albedo modification, as well as understanding of unintended impacts.”

    For decades studying albedo modification has been taboo in the United States, Keith says, for fear that it would distract from the ultimate goal of zeroing out carbon emissions. But given the potentially catastrophic effects of global warming, scientists have an obligation to study the idea, he says. “Because the burden will fall so disproportionately on the poor I think there’s a moral imperative to do it,” he says.

    Even if albedo modification won’t work, the research would pay big dividends, Penner predicts. Among the most uncertain elements in climate models are the effects of aerosols and their interactions with clouds—just the things involved in albedo modification—she says. Because of those uncertainties, researchers can estimate only that doubling atmospheric carbon dioxide from preindustrial levels would increase global temperature between 1°C and 5°C. “If we knew the aerosol forcing we could reduce that range,” Penner says.

    If the federal government turns a blind eye to albedo modification, the research will be done anyway by countries such as China and researchers sponsored by nongovernmental organizations such as the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Keith says.

    So the real choice is between exploring albedo modification openly or in relative secrecy, he says: “I believe in sunshine and democracy, and I really think this should be done by the U.S. government and in a transparent way.”

    The Senate language is a long way from becoming law. The full Senate has yet to act on the measure, which ultimately would have to be reconciled with DOE spending levels approved by the House of Representatives. Any final bill would have to be signed by the president.

    DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf4148

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    Public Release Event: Climate Intervention Reports » Climate Change …

    nas-sites.org/americasclimatechoices/public-release-event-climateinterve

    Feb 14, 2015Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration and Climate Intervention: Reflecting Sunlight to Cool Earth.

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    Climate Intervention – National Academies

    dels.nas.edu/…/cli
    National Research Council (U.S.) Commission on Ge…

    Climate Intervention. Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration. Reflecting Sunlight to Cool Earth. CLIMATE INTERVENTION IS NO SUBSTITUTE for …

    Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Ocean Studies Board

    Climate Intervention
    Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration
    Reflecting Sunlight to Cool Earth
    CLIMATE INTERVENTION IS NO SUBSTITUTE
    for reductions in carbon dioxide emissions andadaptation efforts aimed at reducing the negative consequences of climate change. However, as our planet enters a period of changing climate never before experienced in recorded human history, interest is growing in the potential for deliberate intervention in the climate system to counter climate change.
    ——–
    This study assesses the potential impacts, benefits, and costs of two different proposed classes of climate intervention:
    (1) carbon dioxide removal and
    (2) albedo modification (reflecting sunlight). Carbon dioxide removal strategies address a key driver of climate change, but research is needed to fully assess if any of these technologies could be appropriate for large-scale deployment. Albedo modification strategies could rapidly cool the planet’s surface but pose environmental and other risks that are not well understood and therefore should not be deployed at climate-altering
    scales; more research is needed to determine if albedo modification approaches could be viable in the future.
    ———————————————-
    To date, most research on countering the impacts of climate change has focused on
    mitigating climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions or on adapting human and natural systems to make them more resilient to the effects of a changing climate. In contrast, climate intervention—purposeful intervention in the climate system to counter climate change—has received little attention.
    ———————————————–
    Despite growing interest in climate intervention (also called geoengineering)
    ———————————————————————-
    over recent years, there is a lack of information on the impacts, benefits, and costs of these technologies. These reports provide a scientific assessment to help inform the technological, ethical, legal, economic, and political discussions surrounding the topic of climate intervention.
    ———————————————————-
    Box 1.
    Proposed Climate Intervention Strategies
    This study considers two proposed classes of climate intervention:

    Carbon dioxide removal strategies would actively remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and sequester it reliably.–

    Albedo modification strategies would reduce the amount of sunlight absorbed by Earth in order to cool the planet’s surface.
    As the Committee analyzed specific carbon dioxide removal and albedo modification
    strategies, it became apparent that there are vast differences in the research needs, and the extent of the environmental and social risks associated with the two classes of approaches.This led the Committee to separate the climate intervention topics considered in this study into two separate reports
    ———————————————–
    Box 2.
    Carbon Dioxide Removal Strategies
    Considered in This Study
    •Changes in land use management to enhance natural carbon sinks such as forests and agricultural lands
    •Accelerated weathering in the ocean and on land to enhance natural processes that remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere •Bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration
    •Direct air capture and sequestration of carbon dioxide
    •Ocean iron fertilization to boost phytoplankton growth
    and enhance take-up of carbon dioxide
    ———————————
    Box 3.
    Albedo Modification Strategies Considered in This Study
    •Stratospheric aerosols that help reflect sunlight back into space
    •Marine cloud brightening to enhance reflection of sunlight
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    ALBEDO MODIFICATION POSES POORLY UNDERSTOOD RISKS
    Theoretical and observational data indicate albedo modification has the potential to offset some of the consequences of global warming within years and at a relatively low direct cost. However, deploying albedo modification techniques at climatically important scales
    would bring an array of environmental, social, legal, economic, ethical, and political risks.
    —————————————————————–
    FOR FULL TEXT PLEASE GO TO…..

    PDF]Climate Intervention – National Academies

    dels.nas.edu/…/cli
    National Research Council (U.S.) Commission on Ge…

    Climate Intervention. Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration. Reflecting Sunlight to Cool Earth. CLIMATE INTERVENTION IS NO SUBSTITUTE for …

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    CONCLUSION
    Climate change is a global challenge, and addressing it will require a portfolio of responses with varying degrees of risk and efficacy. There is no substitute for dramatic reductions in greenhouse gas emissions to mitigate the negative consequences of climate change, together with adaptation of human and natural systems to make them more resilient to changing climate.
    However, if society ultimately decides to intervene in Earth’s climate,
    the Committee most strongly recommends any such actions be informed by a far more substantive body of scientific research—
    encompassing climate science and economic, political, ethical, and other dimensions—than is available at present ———————————————————-

    The call for further research comes in a bill that would provide $5.4 billion for DOE’s Office of Science next year.

    It also builds on the recommendations of a February 2015 report from the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) entitled Climate Intervention: Reflecting Sunlight to Cool Earth.

    That report warned explicitly that albedo modification shouldn’t be deployed now because the risks and benefits were far too uncertain.

    Still, the committee urged further research to find out what those risks and benefits might be. The Senate appropriations committee wants DOE to do that research.

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    The bottom line
    So the real choice is between exploring albedo modification openly or in relative secrecy, he says: “I believe in sunshine and democracy, and I really think this should be done by the U.S. government and in a transparent way.”
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    Just saying
    I NEVER RECEIVED ANY RESPONSE FROM THIS REQUEST

    US Climate Change Study Explores Weather Modification

    The U.S. study was expected to be finished in the fall of 2014.

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    Just saying…. Just asking???
    David Keith, an atmospheric physicist at Harvard University, says,
    “Ignorance is not a good basis for making decisions?
    so learning more about this is extremely valuable ($5.4 billion?)
     even if we find out that it will never work?
    REALLY?