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  • Category Archives A Labor Day Holiday?
  • Why is Labor Day a National Holiday?

    FEDERAL INTERVENTION

    Under direction from President Grover Cleveland,

    THOUSANDS OF UNITED STATES MARSHALS AND SOME 12,000 UNITED STATES ARMY TROOPS, COMMANDED BY BRIGADIER GENERAL NELSON MILES, TOOK ACTION.

    The arrival of the military and the subsequent deaths of workers in violence led to further outbreaks of violence. During the course of the strike, 30 strikers were killed and 57 were wounded. Property damage exceeded $80 million.

    WHEN THE STRIKE ENDED, THE RAILROADS FIRED AND BLACKLISTED ALL THE EMPLOYEES WHO HAD SUPPORTED IT.

    FOLLOWING THE DEATHS OF WORKERS AT THE HANDS OF United States Army AND United States Marshals Service DURING THE Pullman Strike OF 1894,

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    IN 1894, IN AN EFFORT TO CONCILIATE ORGANIZED LABOR AFTER THE STRIKE, PRESIDENT GROVER CLEVELAND AND CONGRESS DESIGNATED LABOR DAY AS A FEDERAL HOLIDAY.

    LEGISLATION FOR THE HOLIDAY WAS PUSHED THROUGH CONGRESS SIX DAYS AFTER THE STRIKE ENDED.

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    The bottom line…

    WHY WOULD ANY AMERICAN CITIZEN CELEBRATE LABOR DAY?

    Is this what they are teaching to American school kids  as common core education?

    THE 1894 FEDERAL LABOR DAY HOLIDAY Observed on the first Monday in September, Labor Day pays tribute to the contributions and achievements of American workers. It was created by the labor movement in the late 19th century and became a federal holiday in 1894.

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    REALLY?  HOW STUPID DO THEY THINK WE ARE?

    THE 1894 FEDERAL LABOR DAY HOLIDAY WAS CREATED BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES AND CONGRESS  AS A BIPARTISAN POLITICO APPEASEMENT ATTEMPT  TO SHORE UP SUPPORT AMONG TRADE UNIONS……. PERIOD 

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    Those who do not read history are doomed to repeat it.

    What happened in America in 1893- 1894?

    Document…  Document…. Document…..

    Those who don’t know history are doomed to repeat it

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    THE HISTORY OF LABOR DAY

    Most factory workers who built Pullman cars lived in the “company town” of Pullman on the Southside of Chicago, Illinois

    DURING A SEVERE DEPRESSION (THE PANIC OF 1893), the Pullman Palace Car Company cut wages as demand for new passenger cars plummeted and the company’s revenue dropped. A delegation of workers complained that wages had been cut but not rents at their company housing or other costs in the company town. The company owner, George Pullman, refused to lower rents or go to arbitration.

    Among the reasons for the strike were the absence of Democracy within the town of Pullman and its politics, the rigid paternalistic control of the workers by the company, excessive water and gas rates, and a refusal by the company to allow workers to buy and own houses.

    When his company laid off workers and lowered wages, it did not reduce rents, and the workers called for a strike.

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    YOU LOAD 16 TONS AND WHAT DO YOU GET A “company town” AND DEEPER IN DEBT

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    The conflict began in Pullman, Chicago, on May 11 when nearly 4,000 factory employees of the Pullman Company began a wildcat strike IN RESPONSE TO RECENT REDUCTIONS IN WAGES. DURING A SEVERE DEPRESSION

    Debs began the boycott on June 26, 1894. Within four days, 125,000 workers on twenty-nine railroads had “walked off” the job rather than handle Pullman cars.

    The PULLMAN STRIKE was a nationwide railroad strike in the United States on May 11, 1894. It pitted the American Railway Union (ARU) against the Pullman Company, the main railroads, and the federal government of the United States under President Grover Cleveland. The strike and boycott shut down much of the nation’s freight and passenger traffic west of Detroit, Michigan.

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    MEDIA COVERAGE BIPARTISAN POLITICO DISAGREEMENT, APPEASEMENT  AND PUBLIC OPINION

    PUBLIC OPINION  WAS mostly opposed to the strike and supported Cleveland’s actions.

    BIPARTISAN POLITICO DISAGREEMENT  Republicans and eastern Democrats supported Cleveland (the leader of the northeastern pro-business wing of the party), while southern and western Democrats, as well as Populists, generally denounced him. Governor John Peter Altgeld of Illinois, a Democrat, denounced Cleveland and said he could handle all disturbances in his state without federal intervention.

    MEDIA COVERAGE WAS EXTENSIVE AND GENERALLY NEGATIVE. A COMMON TROPE IN NEWS REPORTS AND EDITORIALS DEPICTED THE BOYCOTTERS AS FOREIGNERS WHO CONTESTED THE PATRIOTISM EXPRESSED BY THE MILITIAS AND TROOPS INVOLVED, AS NUMEROUS RECENT IMMIGRANTS WORKED IN THE FACTORIES AND ON THE RAILROADS.

    MEDIA COVERAGE  THE EDITORS WARNED OF MOBS, ALIENS, ANARCHY, AND DEFIANCE OF THE LAW.

     The New York Times called it “a struggle between the greatest and most important labor organization and the entire railroad capital.”[ In Chicago the established church leaders denounced the boycott, but some younger Protestant ministers defended it.

    THE ILLINOIS GOVERNOR JOHN P. ALTGELD WAS INCENSED AT CLEVELAND FOR PUTTING THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT AT THE SERVICE OF THE EMPLOYERS, AND FOR REJECTING ALTGELD’S PLAN TO USE HIS STATE MILITIA RATHER THAN FEDERAL TROOPS TO KEEP ORDER.

    In Billings, Montana, an important rail center, a local Methodist minister, J. W. Jennings, supported the ARU.

    In a sermon he compared the Pullman boycott to the Boston Tea Party, and attacked Montana state officials and President Cleveland for abandoning “the faith of the Jacksonian fathers.

    ” Rather than defending “the rights of the people against aggression and oppressive corporations,” he said party leaders were “the pliant tools of the codfish monied aristocracy who seek to dominate this country.

     Billings remained quiet but on July 10, soldiers reached Lockwood, Montana, a small rail center, where the troop train was surrounded by hundreds of angry strikers. Narrowly averting violence, the army opened the lines through Montana.

    WHEN THE STRIKE ENDED, THE RAILROADS FIRED AND BLACKLISTED ALL THE EMPLOYEES WHO HAD SUPPORTED IT.

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    LABOR DAY MEDIA COVERAGE BIPARTISAN POLITICO APPEASEMENT  AND PUBLIC OPINION

    FOLLOWING THE DEATHS OF WORKERS AT THE HANDS OF United States Army AND United States Marshals Service DURING THE Pullman Strike OF 1894,

    In 1894, in an effort to conciliate organized labor after the strike, President Grover Cleveland and Congress designated Labor Day as a federal holiday. Legislation for the holiday was pushed through Congress six days after the strike ended. Samuel Gompers, who had sided with the federal government in its effort to end the strike by the American Railway Union, spoke out in favor of the holiday

    PRESIDENT  GROVER CLEVELAND SUPPORTED THE CREATION OF THE NATIONAL HOLIDAY IN AN ATTEMPT TO SHORE UP SUPPORT AMONG TRADE UNIONS FOLLOWING THE PULLMAN STRIKE.

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    THE REST OF THE STORY

    CLEVELAND’S ADMINISTRATION APPOINTED A NATIONAL COMMISSION TO STUDY THE CAUSES OF THE 1894 STRIKE; IT FOUND GEORGE PULLMAN’S PATERNALISM PARTLY TO BLAME

    AND DESCRIBED THE OPERATIONS OF HIS COMPANY TOWN TO BE “UN-AMERICAN”. IN 1898,

    THE ILLINOIS SUPREME COURT FORCED THE PULLMAN COMPANY TO DIVEST OWNERSHIP IN THE TOWN, AS ITS COMPANY CHARTER DID NOT AUTHORIZE SUCH OPERATIONS, AND THE LAND WAS ANNEXED TO CHICAGO.

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    PROMOTING SOCIALISM IN AMERICA?

    At the time of his arrest, Debs was not a socialist. During his time in prison, he read the works of Karl Marx. After his release in 1895, he became the leading socialist figure in the United States. He ran for president in 1900 for the first of five times as head of the Socialist Party ticket.

    Civil as well as criminal charges were brought against the organizers of the strike and Debs in particular, and the Supreme Court issued a unanimous decision, In re Debs, that rejected Debs’ actions.

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    The Pullman Strike was a nationwide railroad strike in the United States on May 11, 1894. It pitted the American Railway Union (ARU) against the Pullman Company, the main railroads, and the federal government of the United States under President Grover Cleveland. The strike and boycott shut down much of the nation’s freight and passenger traffic west of Detroit, Michigan. The conflict began in Pullman, Chicago, on May 11 when nearly 4,000 factory employees of the Pullman Company began a wildcat strike in response to recent reductions in wages.

    Most factory workers who built Pullman cars lived in the “company town” of Pullman on the Southside of Chicago, Illinois. The industrialist George Pullman had designed it ostensibly as a model community. GEORGE PULLMAN HAD A DIVERSE WORK FORCE. HE WANTED TO HIRE AFRICAN-AMERICANS FOR CERTAIN JOBS AT THE COMPANY. Pullman would also hire young, single women to run his secretary for him. Pullman used ads and other campaigns to help bring work into his company.

    WHEN HIS COMPANY LAID OFF WORKERS AND LOWERED WAGES, IT DID NOT REDUCE RENTS, AND THE WORKERS CALLED FOR A STRIKE.

     AMONG THE REASONS FOR THE STRIKE WERE THE ABSENCE OF DEMOCRACY WITHIN THE TOWN OF PULLMAN AND ITS POLITICS, THE RIGID PATERNALISTIC CONTROL OF THE WORKERS BY THE COMPANY, EXCESSIVE WATER AND GAS RATES, AND A REFUSAL BY THE COMPANY TO ALLOW WORKERS TO BUY AND OWN HOUSES.

    They had not yet formed a union. Founded in 1893 by Eugene V. Debs, THE ARU WAS AN ORGANIZATION OF UNSKILLED RAILROAD WORKERS. Debs brought in ARU organizers to Pullman and signed up many of THE DISGRUNTLED FACTORY WORKERS When the Pullman Company refused recognition of the ARU or any negotiations, ARU called a strike against the factory, but it showed no sign of success.

    To win the strike, Debs decided to stop the movement of Pullman cars on railroads. The over-the-rail Pullman employees (such as conductors and porters) did not go on strike.

    Debs began the boycott on June 26, 1894. Within four days, 125,000 workers on twenty-nine railroads had “walked off” the job rather than handle Pullman cars.

    The railroads coordinated their response through the General Managers’ Association, which had been formed in 1886 and included 24 lines linked to Chicago.

    THE RAILROADS BEGAN HIRING REPLACEMENT WORKERS (STRIKEBREAKERS), WHICH INCREASED HOSTILITIES.

    MANY BLACKS WERE RECRUITED AS STRIKEBREAKERS AND CROSSED PICKET LINES, AS THEY FEARED THAT THE RACISM EXPRESSED BY THE AMERICAN RAILWAY UNION WOULD LOCK THEM OUT OF ANOTHER LABOR MARKET. THIS ADDED RACIAL TENSION TO THE UNION’S PREDICAMENT.

    ON JUNE 29, 1894, DEBS HOSTED A PEACEFUL MEETING TO RALLY SUPPORT FOR THE STRIKE FROM RAILROAD WORKERS AT BLUE ISLAND, ILLINOIS.

    Afterward, groups within the crowd became enraged and set fire to nearby buildings and derailed a locomotive. Elsewhere in the western states, sympathy strikers prevented transportation of goods by walking off the job, obstructing railroad tracks, or threatening and attacking strikebreakers.

    THIS INCREASED NATIONAL ATTENTION AND THE DEMAND FOR FEDERAL ACTION.

    DEBS AND THE ARU CALLED A MASSIVE BOYCOTT AGAINST ALL TRAINS THAT CARRIED A PULLMAN CAR. IT AFFECTED MOST RAIL LINES WEST OF DETROIT AND AT ITS PEAK INVOLVED SOME 250,000 WORKERS IN 27 STATES.

    The Railroad brotherhoods and the American Federation of Labor (AFL) opposed the boycott, and the General Managers Association of the railroads coordinated the opposition.

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    Federal intervention

    Under direction from President Grover Cleveland,

    City by city the federal forces broke the ARU efforts to shut down the national transportation system. THOUSANDS OF UNITED STATES MARSHALS AND SOME 12,000 UNITED STATES ARMY TROOPS, COMMANDED BY BRIGADIER GENERAL NELSON MILES, TOOK ACTION. President Cleveland wanted the trains moving again, based on his legal, constitutional responsibility for the mails. His lawyers argued that the boycott violated the Sherman Antitrust Act, and represented a threat to public safety.

    The arrival of the military and the subsequent deaths of workers in violence led to further outbreaks of violence. During the course of the strike, 30 strikers were killed and 57 were wounded. Property damage exceeded $80 million.

    THIRTY PEOPLE WERE KILLED IN RESPONSE TO RIOTS AND sabotage that caused $80 million in damages. The federal government obtained an injunction against the union, Debs, and the top leaders, ordering them to stop interfering with trains that carried mail cars.

    AFTER THE STRIKERS REFUSED, PRESIDENT Grover Cleveland ORDERED IN THE ARMY TO STOP THE STRIKERS FROM OBSTRUCTING THE TRAINS. VIOLENCE BROKE OUT IN MANY CITIES, AND THE STRIKE COLLAPSED.

    DEFENDED BY A TEAM INCLUDING Clarence Darrow, DEBS WAS CONVICTED OF VIOLATING A COURT ORDER AND SENTENCED TO PRISON; THE ARU DISSOLVED.

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    Oops…  Labor Day on May Day socialist and anarchist  

    Beginning in the late 19th century, as the trade union and labor movements grew, different groups of trade unionists chose a variety of days on which to celebrate labor. In the United States and Canada, a September holiday, called Labor or Labour Day, was first proposed in the 1880s.

    In 1882, Matthew Maguire, a machinist, first proposed a Labor Day holiday while serving as secretary of the Central Labor Union (CLU) of New York

    The date of May 1 (an ancient European holiday known as May Day) was an alternative date, celebrated then (and now) as International Workers Day, but

    President Cleveland was concerned that observance of Labor Day on May 1 would encourage Haymarket-style protests and would strengthen socialist and anarchist movements that, though distinct from one another, had rallied to commemorate the Haymarket Affair in International Workers’ Day.

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    The bottom line…

    Is this what they are teaching to American school kids  as common core education?

    THE 1894 FEDERAL LABOR DAY HOLIDAY Observed on the first Monday in September, Labor Day pays tribute to the contributions and achievements of American workers. It was created by the labor movement in the late 19th century and became a federal holiday in 1894.

    ——————————————————————————————-

    REALLY?  HOW STUPID DO THEY THINK WE ARE?

    WHY WOULD ANY INFORMED AMERICAN CITIZEN CELEBRATE LABOR DAY?

    THE 1894 FEDERAL LABOR DAY HOLIDAY WAS CREATED BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES AND CONGRESS  AS A BIPARTISAN POLITICO APPEASEMENT ATTEMPT  TO SHORE UP SUPPORT AMONG TRADE UNIONS……. PERIOD