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  • Category Archives A Bill for diffusion of knowledge
  • Americas advancement of knowledge 1786-2018

    1786 “The advancement and diffusion of knowledge is the only guardian of true liberty” James Madison.

    2017 THE ADVANCEMENT AND DIFFUSION OF KNOWLEDGE WORLD WIDE WEB SOCIAL MEDIA STATISTICS

    For context, as of October 2017, total worldwide population is 7.6 billion

    The internet has 3.5 billion users

    There are 3.03 billion active social media users

    91% of retail brands use 2 or more social media channels

    81% of all small and medium businesses use some kind of social platform

    Internet users have an average of 7.6 social media accounts

    Social media users grew by 121 million between Q2 2017 and Q3 2017.

    That works out at a new social media user every 15 seconds.

    Facebook Messenger and Whatsapp handle 60 billion messages a day

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    1954-2018  THE ADVANCEMENT AND DIFFUSION OF KNOWLEDGE WAS JUST A MATTER OF TIME

    It was just a matter of time before the general public would be able to grasp and upset the cradle of power. In 1954 it was well recognized by those in positions of authority that it was only a matter of time, only a few decades, before the general public would be able to grasp and upset the cradle of power, for the very elements of the new silent weapon technology were as accessible for a public utopia as they were for providing a private utopia.

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    THE INTERNET GOT ITS START IN THE UNITED STATES 1954-2018 ALMOST 70 YEARS AGO AS A GOVERNMENT WEAPON IN THE COLD WAR.

    The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was an early packet switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP.

    BOTH TECHNOLOGIES BECAME THE TECHNICAL FOUNDATION OF THE INTERNET.

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    The Invention of the Internet – Inventions – HISTORY.com

    www.history.com/topics/inventions/invention-of-the-internet

    Find out more about the history of The Invention of the Internet, including videos, interesting articles, pictures, historical features and more. GET ALL THE FACTS ON HISTORY.COM.

    Unlike technologies such as the light bulb or the telephone, the Internet has no single “inventor.” Instead, it has evolved over time. THE INTERNET GOT ITS START IN THE UNITED STATES MORE THAN 50 YEARS AGO AS A GOVERNMENT WEAPON IN THE COLD WAR. For years, scientists and researchers used it to communicate and share data with one another.

    THE SPUTNIK SCARE

    On OCTOBER 4, 1957, the Soviet Union launched the world’s first manmade satellite into orbit. The satellite, known as Sputnik, did not do much: It tumbled aimlessly around in outer space, sending blips and bleeps from its radio transmitters as it circled the Earth. Still, to many Americans, the beach-ball-sized Sputnik was proof of something alarming: While the brightest scientists and engineers in the United States had been designing bigger cars and better television sets, it seemed, the Soviets had been focusing on less frivolous things—and they were going to win the Cold War because of it.

    After Sputnik’s launch, many Americans began to think more seriously about science and technology. Schools added courses on subjects like chemistry, physics and calculus. Corporations took government grants and invested them in scientific research and development.

     AND THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT ITSELF FORMED NEW AGENCIES, SUCH AS THE NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION (NASA) AND THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE’S ADVANCED RESEARCH PROJECTS AGENCY (ARPA), TO DEVELOP SPACE-AGE TECHNOLOGIES SUCH AS ROCKETS, WEAPONS AND COMPUTERS.

    THE BIRTH OF THE ARPANET

    Scientists and military experts were especially concerned about what might happen in the event of a Soviet attack on the nation’s telephone system. Just one missile, they feared, could destroy the whole network of lines and wires that made efficient long-distance communication possible. In 1962, A SCIENTIST FROM M.I.T. AND ARPA NAMED J.C.R. LICKLIDER proposed a solution to this problem: a “GALACTIC NETWORK” of computers that could talk to one another. Such a network would enable government leaders to communicate even if the Soviets destroyed the telephone system.

    In 1965, another M.I.T. SCIENTIST developed a way of sending information from one computer to another that he called “packet switching.” Packet switching breaks data down into blocks, or packets, before sending it to its destination. That way, each packet can take its own route from place to place. Without packet switching, the government’s computer network—now known as the ARPAnet—would have been just as vulnerable to enemy attacks as the phone system.

    “LOGIN”

    In 1969, ARPAnet delivered its first message: a “node-to-node” communication from one computer to another. (THE FIRST COMPUTER WAS LOCATED IN A RESEARCH LAB AT UCLA AND THE SECOND WAS AT STANFORD; each one was the size of a small house.) The message—“LOGIN”—was short and simple, but it crashed the fledgling ARPA network anyway: The Stanford computer only received the note’s first two letters.

    THE NETWORK GROWS 1969-1970-1971 INTO A SINGLE WORLDWIDE “INTERNET.”

    By the end of 1969, just four computers were connected to the ARPAnet, but the network grew steadily during the 1970s. In 1971,

     IT ADDED THE UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII’S ALOHANET, AND TWO YEARS LATER IT ADDED NETWORKS AT LONDON’S UNIVERSITY COLLEGE AND THE ROYAL RADAR ESTABLISHMENT IN NORWAY.

     AS PACKET-SWITCHED COMPUTER NETWORKS MULTIPLIED, HOWEVER, IT BECAME MORE DIFFICULT FOR THEM TO INTEGRATE INTO A SINGLE WORLDWIDE “INTERNET.”

    By the end of the 1970s, a computer scientist named Vinton Cerf had begun to solve this problem by developing a way for all of the computers on all of the world’s mini-networks to communicate with one another. He called his invention “TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL,” or TCP. (Later, he added an additional protocol, known as “INTERNET PROTOCOL.” The acronym we use to refer to these today is TCP/IP.) One writer describes Cerf’s protocol as “the ‘handshake’ that introduces distant and different computers to each other in a virtual space.”

    THE WORLD WIDE WEB 1991-1992 A COMPUTER PROGRAMMER IN SWITZERLAND

    Cerf’s protocol transformed the Internet into a worldwide network. Throughout the 1980s, researchers and scientists used it to send files and data from one computer to another. However, in 1991 the Internet changed again. THAT YEAR, A COMPUTER PROGRAMMER IN SWITZERLAND named Tim Berners-Lee introduced THE WORLD WIDE WEB: an Internet that was not simply a way to send files from one place to another but was itself A “WEB” OF INFORMATION THAT ANYONE ON THE INTERNET COULD RETRIEVE. Berners-Lee created the Internet that we know today.

    Since then, the Internet has changed in many ways. In 1992, a group of students and researchers at the University of Illinois developed a sophisticated browser that they called Mosaic. (It later became Netscape.) Mosaic offered a user-friendly way to search the Web: It allowed users to see words and pictures on the same page for the first time and to navigate using scrollbars and clickable links. THAT SAME YEAR, CONGRESS DECIDED THAT THE WEB COULD BE USED FOR COMMERCIAL PURPOSES. As a result, companies of all kinds hurried to set up websites of their own, and e-commerce entrepreneurs began to use the Internet to sell goods directly to customers.

    More recently, social networking sites like Facebook have become a popular way for people of all ages to stay connected.

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    FEB 14, 2018 THE WORLD WIDE WEB and SOCIAL MEDIA

    WorldWideWebSize.com | The size of the World Wide Web (The Internet)

    www.worldwidewebsize.com/

    The size of the World Wide Web (The Internet) is estimated here every day. THE INDEXED WEB CONTAINS AT LEAST 4.48 BILLION PAGES. LAST UPDATE MONDAY, 12 FEBRUARY, 2018.

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    105 Amazing Social Media Statistics and Facts | Brandwatch

    https://www.brandwatch.com/…/96-amazing-social-media-statistics-and-facts-for-2016…

    NOV 18, 2017 – We come across all sorts of interesting stats about social media sites and users, so we’ve collated the best of them in this bumper facts list. … in 2015, up from 13% a year ago; Only 20 Fortune 500 companies actually engage with their customers on Facebook,

    WHILE 83% HAVE A PRESENCE ON TWITTER; PEOPLE …

    For the curious, these represent a series of numbers that boggle the mind, users counted in tens and hundreds of millions, and time in millions and billions of hours.

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    World Wide Web Timeline – Pew Internet

    www.pewinternet.org/2014/03/11/world-wide-web-timeline/

    MAR 11, 2014Since its founding in 1989, the World Wide Web has touched the lives of billions of people around the world and fundamentally changed how we connect with … The timeline below is the beginning of an effort to capture both the major milestones and small moments that have shaped the Web since 1989.

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    SEARCH ENGINES  ON THE WORLD WIDE WEB 1995-2018 GOOGLE AND WIKIPEDIA.

    ALL THINGS GOOGLE BEGAN IN 1995.

    THE SITE WAS NAMED AFTER A GOOGOL — THE NAME FOR THE NUMBER 1 FOLLOWED BY 100 ZEROS — FOUND IN THE BOOK

    The History of Google and How It Was Invented – ThoughtCo

    https://www.thoughtco.com › … › Inventions › Computers & Internet

    The very popular search engine called Google was invented by computer scientists Larry Page and Sergey Brin. The site was named after a googol — the name for the number 1 followed by 100 zeros — found in the book “Mathematics and the Imagination” by Edward Kasner and James Newman.

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    ALL THINGS WIKIPEDIA BEGAN IN 1995.

    CUNNINGHAM ALMOST CALLED IT QUICKWEB, BUT CHANGED COURSE AFTER REMEMBERING A TRIP TO HAWAII WHERE HE’D BEEN INSTRUCTED TO TAKE THE “WIKI WIKI BUS” AT THE AIRPORT. “WIKI WIKI” MEANT “QUICK” AND IT …

    History of Wikipedia – Wikipedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Wikipedia

    Wikipedia began with its launch on 15 January 2001, two days after the domain was registered by Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger. … In 2001, the license for Nupedia was changed to GFDL, and Wales and Sanger launched Wikipedia using the concept and technology of a wiki pioneered in 1995 by Ward Cunningham.

    Founding of Wikipedia · ‎Development of Wikipedia · ‎History by subject area

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    THE DIFFUSION OF KNOWLEDGE WORLD WIDE WEB SOCIAL MEDIA

    MARCH 16, 2016

    The Warning – The Genius and The Courage

    Posted on March 16, 2016 10:49 am by Pearl Rains Hewett

    The Warning – The Genius and The Courage

    We the People are engaged in a great 2016 Politico war, that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth. period

    Simply Put…WITHOUT AMERICA THERE IS NO FREE WORLD

    WITHOUT TRUMP THERE WOULD BE NO AMERICA

    Indeed, The advancement and diffusion of knowledge was the guardian of true liberty in the United States of America securing the election of President Donald J. Trump.

    TWITTER IS ONE OF THE BIGGEST SOCIAL NETWORKS WORLDWIDE.

    Donald J. Trump (@realDonaldTrump) · Twitter

    https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump

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    JUNE 8, 2016

    Behind My Back | What’s Driving the Establishment Bonkers?

    www.behindmyback.org/2016/06/08/whats-driving-the-establishment-bonkers/

    Jun 8, 2016 – Who’s Driving The Establishments Mainstream Media 1890’s – 2013 – 2016? In the old days, the mainstream media had a virtual monopoly on the news.

    But these days, anyone with an Internet connection can put up a news site things go viral in cyberspace, round and round and round they go on social media websites, YouTube, Facebook, Twitter and Tweet…..

    The big news networks have developed an almost incestuous relationship with the federal government in recent years.  But of course the same could be said of the relationship that the media has with the big corporations that own stock in their parent companies and that advertise on their networks.

    This is one of the reasons why we very rarely ever see any hard hitting stories on the big networks anymore. 

    THE FLOW OF INFORMATION THROUGH THE CORPORATE-DOMINATED MEDIA IS VERY TIGHTLY CONTROLLED, AND THERE ARE A LOT OF GATEKEEPERS THAT MAKE SURE THAT THE “WRONG STORIES” DON’T GET PUT OUT TO THE PUBLIC. 

    As a result, many of the “big stories” that have come out in recent years were originally broken by the alternative media.

    The Establishments Mainstream Media And The Politicians That They Worship Hate The Fact That They Cannot Control Internet News Sites

    AND THIS IS DRIVING THE ESTABLISHMENT ABSOLUTELY BONKERS.

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    ALL THINGS ON MY POST #1041 STARTED WITH A 1786 JAMES MADISON QUOTATION

    “The advancement and diffusion of knowledge is the only guardian of true liberty”

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    FROM THE FEDERALIST PAPERS, formally The Federalist, series of 85 essays ON THE PROPOSED NEW CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES AND ON THE NATURE OF REPUBLICAN GOVERNMENT, published between 1787 and 1788 by Alexander Hamilton, JAMES MADISON, and John Jay.

     JAMES MADISON QUOTATIONS

    “If Tyranny and Oppression come to this land, it will be in the guise of fighting a foreign enemy” James Madison

    “The Constitution preserves the advantage of being armed which Americans possess over the people of almost every other nation where the governments are afraid to trust the people with arms” James Madison

     “It will be of little avail to the people that the laws are made by men of their own choice if the laws be so voluminous that they cannot be read, or so incoherent that they cannot be understood” James Madison

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    The Complete Federalist Papers < 1786-1800 < Documents …

    www.let.rug.nl/usa/documents/1786-1800/the-federalist-papers/

    Beginning on October 27, 1787 the Federalist Papers were first published in the New York press under the signature of “Publius”. THESE PAPERS ARE GENERALLY CONSIDERED TO BE ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTIONS TO POLITICAL THOUGHT MADE IN AMERICA. The essays appeared in book form in 1788, with an introduction by …

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    Behind My Back | Just a Matter of Time and Money 1790-2016

    www.behindmyback.org/2016/04/28/just-a-matter-of-time-and-money-1790-2016/

    Apr 28, 2016 – JUST A MATTER OF TIME AND FOREIGN MONEY 1790-2016 1790 GET FIRST ALL THE PEOPLE’S MONEY, THEN ALL THEIR LANDS AND THEN MAKE THEM AND THEIR CHILDREN SERVANTS FOREVER…BANKING … www.behindmyback.org/2016/04/11/silent–weapons-for-a-quiet–war/. Apr 11 …

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    Aug 30, 2009 Al Gore, Vice President made a straightforward statement on his role. He said: During my service in the United States Congress, I TOOK THE INITIATIVE IN CREATING THE INTERNET. I took the initiative in moving forward a whole range of initiatives that have proven to be …


  • Ignorance – Perversion and Truth

    Ignorance – Perversion and Truth

    HISTORY HAS SHOWN FOR OVER 200 YEARS

    THAT OUR LEGISLATORS HAVE BEEN GUILTY OF NOT POSSESSING ENOUGH INFORMATION TO PERCEIVE THE IMPORTANT TRUTHS

    THOMAS JEFFERSON , 25 NOVEMBER 1817
    DOCUMENTED, JAN 18, 2017

    Pelosi: Pass Health Reform So You Can Find Out What’s In It

    www.usnews.com/…/pelosipass-health-refor…

    U.S. News & World Report

    Mar 9, 2010 – Pelosi: Pass Health Reform So You Can Find Out What’s In It … Add House Speaker Nancy Pelosi to the list. Speaking Tuesday to the 2010 …
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    HISTORY HAS SHOWN FOR OVER 200 YEARS

    THOMAS JEFFERSON, 25 NOVEMBER 1817
    DOCUMENTED, JAN 18, 2017

    WHEREAS IT APPEARETH THAT HOWEVER CERTAIN FORMS OF GOVERNMENT ARE BETTER CALCULATED THAN OTHERS TO PROTECT INDIVIDUALS IN THE FREE EXERCISE OF THEIR NATURAL RIGHTS, AND ARE AT THE SAME TIME THEMSELVES BETTER GUARDED AGAINST DEGENERACY, YET EXPERIENCE HATH SHEWN, THAT EVEN UNDER THE BEST FORMS,

    THOSE ENTRUSTED WITH POWER HAVE, IN TIME, AND BY SLOW OPERATIONS, PERVERTED IT INTO TYRANNY….

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    1. A Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge, 18 …

    As part of his work in revising the laws of Virginia during the late 1770s and early 1780s, THOMAS JEFFERSON PUT FORTH A BILL THAT HAS BECOME ONE OF HIS MOST ENDURING WORKS ON THE SUBJECT OF EDUCATION: Bill 79, “A Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge.” Its oft-quoted preamble reads as follows:

    THOMAS JEFFERSON, 25 NOVEMBER 1817

    MY HOPES HOWEVER ARE KEPT IN CHECK BY THE ORDINARY CHARACTER OF OUR STATE LEGISLATURES,  THE MEMBERS OF WHICH DO NOT GENERALLY POSSESS INFORMATION ENOUGH TO PERCIEVE THE IMPORTANT TRUTHS, THAT KNOWLEDGE IS POWER, THAT KNOWLEDGE IS SAFETY, AND THAT KNOWLEDGE IS HAPPINESS.”

    DONALD J. TRUMP AND AMERICAN VOTERS

    DID PERCEIVE THE IMPORTANT AMERICAN TRUTHS ABOUT KNOWLEDGE, SAFETY, POWER,PERVERSION INTO TYRANNY OBAMA CARE, EDUCATION, AND HAPPINESS.

    NO LONGER ARE OUR AMERICAN HOPES KEPT IN CHECK.

    DONALD J. TRUMP IS THE PRESIDENT ELECT AND INAUGURATION DAY IS JAN 20, 2017

    THE CHARACTER OF THE REPUBLICAN LEGISLATORS AND HIS CABINET PICKS

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    For the General Diffusion of Knowledge  and truth.

    Responding to stories of the day (fake news etc.)

    Sean Spicer

    Press Secretary and Special Assistant to the President

    Appointed

    Mr. Spicer was the longtime spokesman for the Republican National Committee and top aide to Mr. Priebus. Mr. Spicer will be the face of the White House, framing messaging, responding to stories of the day and briefing the press.

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    JAN 18, 2017 UPDATING 2015 POST

    Knowledge is Power 1597-1817-2015

    Posted on November 11, 2015 3:00 pm by Pearl Rains Hewett Comment

    1. A Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge, 18 …

    As part of his work in revising the laws of Virginia during the late 1770s and early 1780s, Thomas Jefferson put forth a bill that has become one of his most enduring works on the subject of education: Bill 79, “A Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge.” Its oft-quoted preamble reads as follows:

    ————————
    Whereas it appeareth that however certain forms of government are better calculated than others to protect individuals in the free exercise of their natural rights, and are at the same time themselves better guarded against degeneracy, yet experience hath shewn, that even under the best forms,

    those entrusted with power have, in time, and by slow operations, perverted it into tyranny;

    AND IT IS BELIEVED THAT THE MOST EFFECTUAL MEANS OF PREVENTING THIS WOULD BE, TO ILLUMINATE, AS FAR AS PRACTICABLE, THE MINDS OF THE PEOPLE AT LARGE,

    AND MORE ESPECIALLY TO GIVE THEM KNOWLEDGE OF THOSE FACTS, WHICH HISTORY EXHIBITETH, THAT, POSSESSED THEREBY OF THE EXPERIENCE OF OTHER AGES AND COUNTRIES, THEY MAY BE ENABLED TO KNOW AMBITION UNDER ALL ITS SHAPES, AND PROMPT TO EXERT THEIR NATURAL POWERS TO DEFEAT ITS PURPOSES;

    And whereas it is generally true that that people will be happiest whose laws are best, and are best administered, and that laws will be wisely formed, and honestly administered, in proportion as those who form and administer them are wise and honest; whence it becomes expedient for promoting the publick happiness that those persons, whom nature hath endowed with genius and virtue, should be rendered by liberal education worthy to receive, and able to guard the sacred deposit of the rights and liberties of their fellow citizens, and that they should be called to that charge without regard to wealth, birth or other accidental condition or circumstance; but the indigence of the greater number disabling them from so educating, at their own expence, those of their children whom nature hath fitly formed and disposed to become useful instruments for the public, IT IS BETTER THAT SUCH SHOULD BE SOUGHT FOR AND EDUCATED AT THE COMMON EXPENCE OF ALL, THAN THAT THE HAPPINESS OF ALL SHOULD BE CONFIDED TO THE WEAK OR WICKED:
    ——————————————————————–
    The Bill was presented in the House of Delegates in 1778 and 1780, but was not passed; James Madison presented the bill several more times to the state legislature while Jefferson was serving in Paris as Minister to France. A much-revised version was finally passed into law in 1796 AS AN “ACT TO ESTABLISH PUBLIC SCHOOLS.”
    ——————————————————————————–

    Federal Role in Education – US Department of Education

    www2.ed.gov/about/overview/fed

    United States Department of Education

    Feb 13, 2012 – This page discusses the role of the U.S. Department, providing a … About ED OVERVIEW. The Federal Role in Education Overview. Education is primarily a State and local responsibility in the United …. Welcome to ED.gov …

    ———–
    The Federal Role in Education 2011-2012
    EDUCATION IS PRIMARILY A STATE AND LOCAL RESPONSIBILITY IN THE UNITED STATES. It is States and communities, as well as public and private organizations of all kinds, that establish schools and colleges, develop curricula, and determine requirements for enrollment and graduation.

    ———————————————–

    The bottom line

    IT IS BETTER THAT “SUCH” SHOULD BE SOUGHT FOR AND EDUCATED AT THE COMMON EXPENCE OF ALL, THAN THAT THE HAPPINESS OF ALL SHOULD BE CONFIDED TO THE WEAK OR WICKED.

    NO LONGER ARE OUR AMERICAN HOPES KEPT IN CHECK.

    DONALD J. TRUMP IS THE PRESIDENT ELECT AND INAUGURATION DAY IS JAN 20, 2017

    AND, BY THE CONFIRMATION AND CHARACTER OF THE REPUBLICAN LEGISLATORS AND TRUMPS CABINET PICKS


  • Knowledge is Power 1597-1817-2015

    Knowledge is Power 1597-1817-2015

    1817-2015 My hopes however are kept in check by the ordinary character of our state legislatures, THE MEMBERS OF WHICH DO NOT GENERALLY POSSESS INFORMATION ENOUGH TO PERCIEVE THE IMPORTANT TRUTHS, THAT KNOWLEDGE IS POWER, THAT KNOWLEDGE IS SAFETY, AND THAT KNOWLEDGE IS HAPPINESS.”

    Thomas Jefferson , 25 November 1817
    Pearl Rains Hewett, 11 November 2015

    How many times in the last 198 years have our legislators been guilty of not possessing enough information to perceive the important truths?

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    Pelosi: Pass Health Reform So You Can Find Out What’s In It

    www.usnews.com/…/pelosipass-health-refor…
    U.S. News & World Report

    Mar 9, 2010 – Pelosi: Pass Health Reform So You Can Find Out What’s In It … Add House Speaker Nancy Pelosi to the list. Speaking Tuesday to the 2010 …
    ——————————————————————————–

    79. A Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge, 18 …

    As part of his work in revising the laws of Virginia during the late 1770s and early 1780s, Thomas Jefferson put forth a bill that has become one of his most enduring works on the subject of education: Bill 79, “A Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge.” Its oft-quoted preamble reads as follows:

    ————————
    Whereas it appeareth that however certain forms of government are better calculated than others to protect individuals in the free exercise of their natural rights, and are at the same time themselves better guarded against degeneracy, yet experience hath shewn, that even under the best forms,

    those entrusted with power have, in time, and by slow operations, perverted it into tyranny;

    AND IT IS BELIEVED THAT THE MOST EFFECTUAL MEANS OF PREVENTING THIS WOULD BE, TO ILLUMINATE, AS FAR AS PRACTICABLE, THE MINDS OF THE PEOPLE AT LARGE,

    AND MORE ESPECIALLY TO GIVE THEM KNOWLEDGE OF THOSE FACTS, WHICH HISTORY EXHIBITETH, THAT, POSSESSED THEREBY OF THE EXPERIENCE OF OTHER AGES AND COUNTRIES, THEY MAY BE ENABLED TO KNOW AMBITION UNDER ALL ITS SHAPES, AND PROMPT TO EXERT THEIR NATURAL POWERS TO DEFEAT ITS PURPOSES;

    And whereas it is generally true that that people will be happiest whose laws are best, and are best administered, and that laws will be wisely formed, and honestly administered, in proportion as those who form and administer them are wise and honest; whence it becomes expedient for promoting the publick happiness that those persons, whom nature hath endowed with genius and virtue, should be rendered by liberal education worthy to receive, and able to guard the sacred deposit of the rights and liberties of their fellow citizens, and that they should be called to that charge without regard to wealth, birth or other accidental condition or circumstance; but the indigence of the greater number disabling them from so educating, at their own expence, those of their children whom nature hath fitly formed and disposed to become useful instruments for the public, it is better that such should be sought for and educated at the common expence of all, than that the happiness of all should be confided to the weak or wicked:
    ——————————————————————–
    The Bill was presented in the House of Delegates in 1778 and 1780, but was not passed; James Madison presented the bill several more times to the state legislature while Jefferson was serving in Paris as Minister to France. A much-revised version was finally passed into law in 1796 AS AN “ACT TO ESTABLISH PUBLIC SCHOOLS.”2
    ——————————————————————————–

    Federal Role in Education – US Department of Education

    www2.ed.gov/about/overview/fed
    United States Department of Education

    Feb 13, 2012 – This page discusses the role of the U.S. Department, providing a … About ED OVERVIEW. The Federal Role in Education Overview. Education is primarily a State and local responsibility in the United …. Welcome to ED.gov …

    ———–
    The Federal Role in Education 2011-2012
    EDUCATION IS PRIMARILY A STATE AND LOCAL RESPONSIBILITY IN THE UNITED STATES. It is States and communities, as well as public and private organizations of all kinds, that establish schools and colleges, develop curricula, and determine requirements for enrollment and graduation.

    THE STRUCTURE OF EDUCATION FINANCE IN AMERICA REFLECTS THIS PREDOMINANT STATE AND LOCAL ROLE.
    OF AN ESTIMATED $1.15 TRILLION BEING SPENT NATIONWIDE ON EDUCATION AT ALL LEVELS FOR SCHOOL YEAR 2011-2012, A SUBSTANTIAL MAJORITY WILL COME FROM STATE, LOCAL, AND PRIVATE SOURCES. THIS IS ESPECIALLY TRUE AT THE ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY LEVEL, WHERE ABOUT 87.7 PERCENT OF THE FUNDS WILL COME FROM NON-FEDERAL SOURCES.
    That means the FEDERAL CONTRIBUTION TO ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION IS ABOUT 10.8 PERCENT, WHICH INCLUDES FUNDS NOT ONLY FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (ED)
    BUT ALSO FROM OTHER FEDERAL AGENCIES, SUCH AS THE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES’ HEAD START PROGRAM AND THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE’S SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM.
    ——————————————————————————-
    EDUCATION IS PRIMARILY A STATE AND LOCAL RESPONSIBILITY IN THE UNITED STATES

    Behind My Back | The ENABLING ACT February 22, 1889

    www.behindmyback.org/2014/03/…/the-enabling-act-february-22-1889/
    Mar 9, 2014 – The beneficiaries of Washington’s trust lands are enumerated in the state’s Enabling Act and Constitution. They include Commons Schools, …
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    The Federal Role in Education?
    PER SENATOR CANTWELL SEPT. 2015
    “THE EVERY CHILD ACHIEVES ACT” (ECAA) MAKES A NUMBER OF IMPORTANT CHANGES TO SOME OF “NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND’S” EDUCATIONS MOST ONEROUS PROVISIONS.
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    Behind My Back | Educations Most Onerous Provisions

    www.behindmyback.org/2015/09/…/educationsmostonerousprovision

    Sep 14, 2015 – Educations Most Onerous Provisions. ————————————— ONEROUS by definition (of a task, duty, or responsibility) involving an …

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    Every Child Achieves Act: A Wolf in Sheep’s Clothing

    www.americanprinciplesinaction.org/…/everychildachievesact-a-wolf-i

    Jul 1, 2015 – American Principles In Action has just released a list of 21 reasons to oppose the Every Child Achieves Act. You can read it below or download …
    The Every Child Achieves Act – A Wolf in Sheep’s Clothing
    No Child Left Behind Rewrite Will Drive a National Education Agenda The following is a nonexhaustive list of fatal problems with the bill.
    ————————————————
    1. The Every Child Achieves Act (ECAA) is 792 pages, 122 pages (20%) longer than No Child Left Behind (NCLB) — hardly a move in the right direction.
    The bottom line…
    THE “NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND” REWRITE WILL CONTINUE TO DRIVE THE ONEROUS NATIONAL COMMON CORE EDUCATION AGENDA UNDER THE NEW NAME “EVERY CHILD ACHIEVES ACT (ECAA)”

    And, it is believed that the most effectual means of preventing this would be, to illuminate, as far as practicable, the minds of the people at large, and more especially to give them knowledge of those facts, which history exhibiteth, that, possessed thereby of the experience of other ages and countries, they may be enabled to know ambition under all its shapes, and prompt to exert their natural powers to defeat its purposes;
    ———————————————————————————–

    79. A Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge, 18 …

    founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-02-02-0132-0004-0079

    Feb 2, 2001 – Whereas it appeareth that however certain forms of government are better calculated than others to protect individuals in the free exercise of …

    As part of his work in revising the laws of Virginia during the late 1770s and early 1780s, Thomas Jefferson put forth a bill that has become one of his most enduring works on the subject of education: Bill 79, “A Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge.” Its oft-quoted preamble reads as follows:
    Whereas it appeareth that however certain forms of government are better calculated than others to protect individuals in the free exercise of their natural rights, and are at the same time themselves better guarded against degeneracy, yet experience hath shewn, that even under the best forms, those entrusted with power have, in time, and by slow operations, perverted it into tyranny;
    and it is believed that the most effectual means of preventing this would be, to illuminate, as far as practicable, the minds of the people at large, and more especially to give them knowledge of those facts, which history exhibiteth, that, possessed thereby of the experience of other ages and countries, they may be enabled to know ambition under all its shapes, and prompt to exert their natural powers to defeat its purposes;
    ————————————————————————
    Knowledge is power (Quotation)
    This phrase is often attributed to Francis Bacon, in his Meditationes Sacrae (1597).[1]
    Thomas Jefferson used the phrase at least twice:
    “this last establishment will probably be within a mile of Charlottesville, and four from Monticello, if the system should be adopted at all by our legislature who meet within a week from this time,

    My hopes however are kept in check by the ordinary character of our state legislatures, THE MEMBERS OF WHICH DO NOT GENERALLY POSSESS INFORMATION ENOUGH TO PERCIEVE THE IMPORTANT TRUTHS, THAT KNOLEGE IS POWER, THAT KNOLEGE IS SAFETY, AND THAT KNOLEGE IS HAPPINESS.”

    – Thomas Jefferson to George Ticknor, 25 November 1817[2]
    “All the states but our own are sensible that knolege is power.”
    – Thomas Jefferson to Joseph Cabell, 22 January 1820[3]